ISOTOPE CHANGE AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY
In the chemistry book I proposed the experiment below using radioisotopes. In the meantime analytical techniques for measuring the stable isotopic ratio of metals have become cheap and convenient, so the experiment was performed using transitional stable isotopes as in part 2 (basics of chemical physics book).
Some special and quite expensive materials are necessary for this experiment. Zirconium element presents more stable radioisotopes with longer life time (95Zr, 96Zr, 88Zr) besides the two stable isotopes (91Zr and 92Zr).
A metal electrode constituted from a Zr radioisotope is dipped into a salt solution of stable isotopes, for example Zr(NO3)2. Other metals found after hydrogen in the electrochemical series can be used for the purpose of experiment. The experiment has the purpose to test the isotopic change of an element between metal electrode and its solution species. For this purpose, the radioisotope (95Zr) metal piece is immersed into a non radioisotope salt solution Zr(NO3) and for a certain interval of time it is allowed for this isotopic change to take place as in fig 2.9. After that, the radioactivity of solution and remnant radioactivity of metal plate are measured.
Other radioisotopes elements or the use of stable isotopes can serve for the purpose of experiment.
At the moment of book printing the experiment was not performed, so only the prediction of proposed theory by comparison with actual one are presented.
Figure 2.9 Isotopic experiment
Having a metal electrode deeped into a solution that contains ions of that metal, a potential difference between the metal and the solution appears according to actual interpretation due to the following equilibrium:
M = Mn+ + ne-
The entire electrochemistry is build up on the concept of this continous exchange (atoms are going out from metal network into solution and other atoms from solution are deposited on the metal surface. Of course these things are happening at atomci level so at macroscopic level ,,we measure" a certain electric potential for this primary electrode. The potential appears because for different metals we have different tendencies to release electrons and of course to switch some atoms from metallic network with atoms from solution.
Consequently, when the metal strip contain only one isotope (radioisotope) and the solution of its salt contain non radioactive isotope or isotopes, after a period of time there will be a process of isotopic change between metal and solution.
Actual orthodox theory admits as real this isotopic change between metal and its salt solution. In proposed theory there will be no isotopic change between metal and its solution.
A new perspective is offered in proposed theory for the specific comportment of a metal and its salt solution component.
When no reaction takes place between metal strip and solvent (usually water), no isotopic change takes place at the interface solid solution.
When metal piece react with solvent (water), there is a mass transfer between metal piece and solution, so the isotopic pattern of solution is changed. But there is no change of isotopic pattern for remaining metal part, because no metals atoms are deposited back on the metal piece.